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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a rapid, non-invasive imaging technology which produces 3 dimensional images of the macula (the part of the retina used for central, detailed vision). Abnormalities of macular thickness and morphology on OCT imaging are the hallmark of both diabetic retinopathy (commonest cause of vision loss in working aged individuals in the UK) and age-related macular degeneration (commonest cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly). OCT imaging can also provide information about the thickness of the macular nerve fibre layer, which may be thinned in glaucoma (commonest cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide) and in neurodegenerative diseases. We analysed UK Biobank OCT images collected from over 60,000 people to derive variables describing the thickness of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a layer of cells which lies below and which supports the function of light-detecting photoreceptor cells. After excluding poor quality images and images from people with known eye or other disease which could affect RPE thickness, we reported normal RPE thickness values in 34,464 people. We found that the mean RPE thickness in the central 1 mm of the macula was 26.3 microns. Central macular thickness was correlated with age, short-sight (myopia), ethnicity, smoking and intraocular pressure. This work contributes towards a better understanding of RPE thickness and how different ocular and systemic factors influence RPE thickness.