Background: Sleep duration has been implicated in the etiology of obesity but less is known about the association between sleep and other behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations among sleep duration, chronotype, and physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, tobacco use, and dietary intake.
Methods: Regression models were used to examine sleep duration and chronotype as the predictors and cardiovascular risk factors as outcomes of interest in a cross-sectional sample of 439,933 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank project.
Results: Short sleepers were 45 % more likely to smoke tobacco than adequate sleepers (9.8 vs. 6.9 %, respectively). Late chronotypes were more than twice as likely to smoke tobacco than intermediate types (14.9 vs. 7.4 %, respectively). Long sleepers reported 0.61 more hours of television per day than adequate sleepers. Early chronotypes reported 0.20 fewer daily hours of computer use per day than intermediate chronotypes. Early chronotypes had 0.25 more servings of fruit and 0.13 more servings of vegetables per day than late chronotypes.
Conclusions: Short and long sleep duration and late chronotype are associated with greater likelihood of cardiovascular risk behaviors. Further work is needed to determine whether these findings are maintained in the context of objective sleep and circadian estimates, and in more diverse samples. The extent to which promoting adequate sleep duration and earlier sleep timing improves heart health should also be examined prospectively.
Patterson, F., Malone, S.K., Lozano, A. et al. (2016) Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank, Ann. behav. med. (2016) 50: 715. doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9797-5
Effects of Chronotype on Sleep Duration and Body Composition Variables
Body composition changes with age. These changes include decreases in fat-free mass and increases in fat mass and central fat accumulation. Improving body composition will augment efforts to lower obesity rates and cardio-metabolic diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes). Sleep may be a determinant of body composition, whereby shortened sleep duration predicts weight gain. However, evidence is inconsistent. Differences in chronotype (the extent to which an individual is a morning or an evening person) may explain these inconsistent findings. This study will examine the extent to which chronotype modifies the association between sleep duration, fat mass, and fat-free mass in adults.
We will examine the hypothesis that chronotype modifies the effect between sleep duration and obesity. Obesity will be regressed on the indicator for whether or not someone is a morning person or an evening person and sleep duration to determine this relationship. Then to determine potential causal pathways through which sleep duration impacts body composition, chronotype-specific differences in eating habits, physical activity, and body composition will be quantified using structural equation modeling. This approach will allow us to quantify the relationship of other potentially influential variables such as person, demographic, and environmental factors.
Malone, SK, Patterson F, Lu Y, Lozano A and Hanlon A (2015) Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning-evening type in a population sample, Chronobiology International 33:2016 Issue 1, 10-21 http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2015.1107729 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.3109/07420528.2015.1107729?scroll=top&needAccess=true
Patterson, F., Malone, S.K., Lozano, A. et al. (2016) Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank, Ann. behav. med. (2016) 50: 715. doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9797-5 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12160-016-9797-5
Patterson F, Malone SK, Grandner MA, Lozano A, Perkett M and Hanlon A (2017) Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Public Health 2017 ckx029. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx029 https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckx029
|Lead investigator:||Dr. Alexandra Hanlon|
|Lead institution:||University of Pennsylvania|
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