Background: Sleep duration and morningness/eveningness (circadian preference) have separately been associated with cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. tobacco use, physical inactivity). Interactive effects are plausible, resulting from combinations of sleep homeostatic and circadian influences. These have not been examined in a population sample.
Methods: Multivariable regression models were used to test the associations between combinations of sleep duration (short [=6 h], adequate [7 8 h], long [=9 h]) and morning/evening preference (morning, somewhat morning, somewhat evening, evening) with the cardiovascular risk factors of tobacco use, physical inactivity, high sedentary behaviour, obesity/overweight and eating fewer than 5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables, in a cross-sectional sample of 439 933 adults enrolled in the United Kingdom Biobank project.
Results: Participants were 56% female, 95% white and mean age was 56.5 (SD = 8.1) years. Compared with adequate sleep with morning preference (referent group), long sleep with evening preference had a relative odds of 3.23 for tobacco use, a 2.02-fold relative odds of not meeting physical activity recommendations, a 2.19-fold relative odds of high screen-based sedentary behaviour, a 1.47-fold relative odds of being obese/overweight and a 1.62-fold relative odds of <5 fruit and vegetable daily servings. Adequate sleep with either morning or somewhat morning preference was associated with a lower prevalence and odds for all cardiovascular risk behaviours except fruit and vegetable intake.
Conclusions: Long sleepers with evening preference may be a sleep phenotype at high cardiovascular risk. Further work is needed to examine these relationships longitudinally and to assess the effects of chronotherapeutic interventions on cardiovascular risk behaviours.
Patterson F, Malone SK, Grandner MA, Lozano A, Perkett M and Hanlon A (2017) Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Public Health 2017 ckx029. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx029
Effects of Chronotype on Sleep Duration and Body Composition Variables
Body composition changes with age. These changes include decreases in fat-free mass and increases in fat mass and central fat accumulation. Improving body composition will augment efforts to lower obesity rates and cardio-metabolic diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes). Sleep may be a determinant of body composition, whereby shortened sleep duration predicts weight gain. However, evidence is inconsistent. Differences in chronotype (the extent to which an individual is a morning or an evening person) may explain these inconsistent findings. This study will examine the extent to which chronotype modifies the association between sleep duration, fat mass, and fat-free mass in adults.
We will examine the hypothesis that chronotype modifies the effect between sleep duration and obesity. Obesity will be regressed on the indicator for whether or not someone is a morning person or an evening person and sleep duration to determine this relationship. Then to determine potential causal pathways through which sleep duration impacts body composition, chronotype-specific differences in eating habits, physical activity, and body composition will be quantified using structural equation modeling. This approach will allow us to quantify the relationship of other potentially influential variables such as person, demographic, and environmental factors.
Malone, SK, Patterson F, Lu Y, Lozano A and Hanlon A (2015) Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning-evening type in a population sample, Chronobiology International 33:2016 Issue 1, 10-21 http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2015.1107729 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.3109/07420528.2015.1107729?scroll=top&needAccess=true
Patterson, F., Malone, S.K., Lozano, A. et al. (2016) Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank, Ann. behav. med. (2016) 50: 715. doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9797-5 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12160-016-9797-5
Patterson F, Malone SK, Grandner MA, Lozano A, Perkett M and Hanlon A (2017) Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Public Health 2017 ckx029. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx029 https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckx029
|Lead investigator:||Dr. Alexandra Hanlon|
|Lead institution:||University of Pennsylvania|
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