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There is compelling evidence that type I and type II diabetes are both associated with a considerably greater excess risk of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. The mechanisms underlying this sex difference are not fully understood. However, a sex differential in the role of adiposity storage in the development of diabetes may be of particular importance. Using data on 480,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, we observed body size to be substantially greater in individuals with diabetes than in those without diabetes, especially for type II diabetes. Moreover, the difference in mean body size between those with and without type II diabetes was significantly larger in women than in men, but not for type I diabetes. This suggests that a greater difference in body anthropometry associated with diabetes in women compared with men might be responsible for the greater excess risk for CVD in women with type II diabetes as compared to men. Sex differences in the effect of type I diabetes and vascular events, however, are likely to be driven by mechanisms other than body anthropometry. The findings of our study contribute to our understanding of important differences between men and women in how diabetes affects cardiovascular outcomes.