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Despite several muscle mass measures being used in the current definitions of sarcopenia, their usefulness is uncertain because of limited data on their association with health outcomes. This study compared the performance of different muscle mass measures in predicting incident osteoporosis in 149,166 postmenopausal women (mean age 60.3 years). The muscle mass measures included were total body skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and appendicular SMM (aSMM) divided by height squared (ht^2), derived residuals, SMM, SMM adjusted for body mass (SMM/bm 100), and aSMM normalized for body mass index (aSMM/BMI). It was found that muscle mass measures adjusted for height only (SMM/ht^2, aSMM/ht^2) appear to be better muscle-relevant risk factors for incident osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, including when stratified into lean participants and participants with increased adiposity.