Background: Sleep duration has been implicated in the etiology of obesity but less is known about the association between sleep and other behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations among sleep duration, chronotype, and physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, tobacco use, and dietary intake.
Methods: Regression models were used to examine sleep duration and chronotype as the predictors and cardiovascular risk factors as outcomes of interest in a cross-sectional sample of 439,933 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank project.
Results: Short sleepers were 45 % more likely to smoke tobacco than adequate sleepers (9.8 vs. 6.9 %, respectively). Late chronotypes were more than twice as likely to smoke tobacco than intermediate types (14.9 vs. 7.4 %, respectively). Long sleepers reported 0.61 more hours of television per day than adequate sleepers. Early chronotypes reported 0.20 fewer daily hours of computer use per day than intermediate chronotypes. Early chronotypes had 0.25 more servings of fruit and 0.13 more servings of vegetables per day than late chronotypes.
Conclusions: Short and long sleep duration and late chronotype are associated with greater likelihood of cardiovascular risk behaviors. Further work is needed to determine whether these findings are maintained in the context of objective sleep and circadian estimates, and in more diverse samples. The extent to which promoting adequate sleep duration and earlier sleep timing improves heart health should also be examined prospectively.
Patterson, F., Malone, S.K., Lozano, A. et al. (2016) Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank, Ann. behav. med. (2016) 50: 715. doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9797-5
Effects of Chronotype on Sleep Duration and Body Composition Variables
Body composition changes with age. These changes include decreases in fat-free mass and increases in fat mass and central fat accumulation. Improving body composition will augment efforts to lower obesity rates and cardio-metabolic diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes). Sleep may be a determinant of body composition, whereby shortened sleep duration predicts weight gain. However, evidence is inconsistent. Differences in chronotype (the extent to which an individual is a ?morning? or an ?evening? person) may explain these inconsistent findings. This study will examine the extent to which chronotype modifies the association between sleep duration, fat mass, and fat-free mass in adults. Obesity is associated with leading causes of death and chronic disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease). To elucidate the relationship between obesity and sleep, this study will explore sleep duration, with an emphasis on chronotype-specific differences in eating habits, physical activity, fat mass, and fat free mass. This is aligned with the UK Biobank?s purpose because if chronotype modifies the relationship between sleep and obesity, it may be used to predict who is at greatest risk for obesity onset. These findings may also provide insight into chronotype based weight management interventions. We will examine the hypothesis that chronotype modifies the effect between sleep duration and obesity. Obesity will be regressed on the indicator for whether or not someone is a ?morning? person or an ?evening? person and sleep duration to determine this relationship. Then to determine potential causal pathways through which sleep duration impacts body composition, chronotype-specific differences in eating habits, physical activity, and body composition will be quantified using structural equation modeling. This approach will allow us to quantify the relationship of other potentially influential variables such as person, demographic, and environmental factors. Data from the full UK Biobank cohort, stratified and balanced on sex, will be used to elucidate the relationship between chronotype, sleep duration and body composition.
|Lead investigator:||Dr Alexandra Hanlon|
|Lead institution:||University of Pennsylvania|
3 related Returns
|Return ID||App ID||Description||Archive Date|
|1470||3474||Differences in morning-evening type and sleep duration between black and white adults: Results from a propensity-matched UK Biobank sample||5 Jul 2018|
|534||3474||Ethnic differences in sleep duration and moring-evening type in a population||5 Jun 2017|
|536||3474||Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/ evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors||5 Jun 2017|
|536||Smoking, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and diet associated with habitual sleep duration and chronotype: data from the UK Biobank||Patterson et al||2016||Ann. Behav. Med. 2016|