Background: Sleep duration and morningness/eveningness (circadian preference) have separately been associated with cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. tobacco use, physical inactivity). Interactive effects are plausible, resulting from combinations of sleep homeostatic and circadian influences. These have not been examined in a population sample.
Methods: Multivariable regression models were used to test the associations between combinations of sleep duration (short [=6 h], adequate [7 8 h], long [=9 h]) and morning/evening preference (morning, somewhat morning, somewhat evening, evening) with the cardiovascular risk factors of tobacco use, physical inactivity, high sedentary behaviour, obesity/overweight and eating fewer than 5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables, in a cross-sectional sample of 439 933 adults enrolled in the United Kingdom Biobank project.
Results: Participants were 56% female, 95% white and mean age was 56.5 (SD = 8.1) years. Compared with adequate sleep with morning preference (referent group), long sleep with evening preference had a relative odds of 3.23 for tobacco use, a 2.02-fold relative odds of not meeting physical activity recommendations, a 2.19-fold relative odds of high screen-based sedentary behaviour, a 1.47-fold relative odds of being obese/overweight and a 1.62-fold relative odds of <5 fruit and vegetable daily servings. Adequate sleep with either morning or somewhat morning preference was associated with a lower prevalence and odds for all cardiovascular risk behaviours except fruit and vegetable intake.
Conclusions: Long sleepers with evening preference may be a sleep phenotype at high cardiovascular risk. Further work is needed to examine these relationships longitudinally and to assess the effects of chronotherapeutic interventions on cardiovascular risk behaviours.
Patterson F, Malone SK, Grandner MA, Lozano A, Perkett M and Hanlon A (2017) Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Public Health 2017 ckx029. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx029
Effects of Chronotype on Sleep Duration and Body Composition Variables
Body composition changes with age. These changes include decreases in fat-free mass and increases in fat mass and central fat accumulation. Improving body composition will augment efforts to lower obesity rates and cardio-metabolic diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes). Sleep may be a determinant of body composition, whereby shortened sleep duration predicts weight gain. However, evidence is inconsistent. Differences in chronotype (the extent to which an individual is a ?morning? or an ?evening? person) may explain these inconsistent findings. This study will examine the extent to which chronotype modifies the association between sleep duration, fat mass, and fat-free mass in adults. Obesity is associated with leading causes of death and chronic disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease). To elucidate the relationship between obesity and sleep, this study will explore sleep duration, with an emphasis on chronotype-specific differences in eating habits, physical activity, fat mass, and fat free mass. This is aligned with the UK Biobank?s purpose because if chronotype modifies the relationship between sleep and obesity, it may be used to predict who is at greatest risk for obesity onset. These findings may also provide insight into chronotype based weight management interventions. We will examine the hypothesis that chronotype modifies the effect between sleep duration and obesity. Obesity will be regressed on the indicator for whether or not someone is a ?morning? person or an ?evening? person and sleep duration to determine this relationship. Then to determine potential causal pathways through which sleep duration impacts body composition, chronotype-specific differences in eating habits, physical activity, and body composition will be quantified using structural equation modeling. This approach will allow us to quantify the relationship of other potentially influential variables such as person, demographic, and environmental factors. Data from the full UK Biobank cohort, stratified and balanced on sex, will be used to elucidate the relationship between chronotype, sleep duration and body composition.
|Lead investigator:||Dr Alexandra Hanlon|
|Lead institution:||University of Pennsylvania|
3 related Returns
|Return ID||App ID||Description||Archive Date|
|1470||3474||Differences in morning-evening type and sleep duration between black and white adults: Results from a propensity-matched UK Biobank sample||5 Jul 2018|
|534||3474||Ethnic differences in sleep duration and moring-evening type in a population||5 Jun 2017|
|535||3474||Smoking, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and diet associated with habitual sleep duration and chronotype: data from the UK Biobank||5 Jun 2017|
|537||Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/ evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors||Patterson et al||2017||Eur J Public Health 2017|