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Objectives: To determine the prevalence of facial pain and to examine the hypothesis that symptoms are associated with socio-demographic, dental, adverse psychological factors and pain elsewhere in the body. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional population data were obtained from UK Biobank (www.ukbiobank.ac.uk/) study which was conducted in 2006 - 2010 and recruited over 500,000 people. Results: The overall prevalence of facial pain (FP) was 1.9% (women 2.4%, men 1.2%) of which 48% was chronic. The highest prevalence was found in the 51 - 55 age group (2.2%) and the lowest in the 66 - 73 age group (1.4%). There was a difference in prevalence by ethnicity (0.8% and 2.7% in persons reporting themselves as Chinese and Mixed respectively). Prevalence of FP significantly associated with all measures of social class with the most deprived and on lowest income showing the highest prevalence (2.5% and 2.4% respectively). FP was more common in individuals who rated themselves as extremely unhappy, had history of depression and reported sleep problems. Smoking associated with increase in reporting FP while alcohol consumption had inverse association. FP associated with history of painful gums, toothache and all types of regional pain. Conclusions: This is the largest ever study to provide estimates of facial pain prevalence. It demonstrates unique features (lower prevalence than previously reported) and common features (more common in women) and confirms multifactorial aetiology of facial pain. Significant association with psychological distress and a strong relationship to pain elsewhere in the body suggests that aetiology is not specific to this regional pain.
Epidemiology of chronic pain
This project will investigate the epidemiology of chronic pain. It will determine:
* how common pain is at individual sites throughout the body as well as `widespread body pain`
*the factors associated with the reporting of pain including demographic (age, sex, socioeconomic status), lifestyle factors (smoking , alcohol, physical activity)
*other health related factors reported with pain (e.g. fatigue and mood disorders)
*whether persons who report pain also report markers of poor cardiovascular (heart) and respiratory (lung) health and whether their lifestyle puts them at an increased risk of cancer.
*the relationship between reporting of pain and history of falls and fractures.
The project meets Biobank's purpose by researching common and disabling symptoms in the population with a view to further understanding their aetiology. Such knowledge will help to inform the design of future trials to optimise management.
This application requires only data on the full cohort. project It requires linkage to cancer incidence and mortality data (as and when it becomes available), and requires baseline data on lifestyle and psychosocial factors, medical conditions, bone densitometry and blood pressure;