Background: Policy makers are being encouraged to specifically target sugar intake in order to combat obesity. We examined the extent to which sugar, relative to other macronutrients, was associated with adiposity.
Methods: We used baseline data from UK Biobank to examine the associations between energy intake (total and individual macronutrients) and adiposity [body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat and waist circumference]. Linear regression models were conducted univariately and adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and physical activity.
Results: Among 132?479 participants, 66.3% of men and 51.8% of women were overweight/obese. There was a weak correlation (r?=?0.24) between energy from sugar and fat; 13% of those in the highest quintile for sugar were in the lowest for fat, and vice versa. Compared with normal BMI, obese participants had 11.5% higher total energy intake and 14.6%, 13.8%, 9.5% and 4.7% higher intake from fat, protein, starch and sugar, respectively. Hence, the proportion of energy derived from fat was higher (34.3% vs 33.4%, P < 0.001) but from sugar was lower (22.0% vs 23.4%, P < 0.001). BMI was more strongly associated with total energy [coefficient 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-2.55] and energy from fat (coefficient 1.96, 95% CI 1.91-2.06) than sugar (coefficient 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.55). The latter became negative after adjustment for total energy.
Conclusions: Fat is the largest contributor to overall energy. The proportion of energy from fat in the diet, but not sugar, is higher among overweight/obese individuals. Focusing public health messages on sugar may mislead on the need to reduce fat and overall energy consumption.
J.J. Anderson, C.A. Celis-Morales, D.F. Mackay, S. Iliodromiti, D.M. Lyall, N. Sattar, J.M.R. Gill, J.P. Pell; Adiposity among 132479 UK Biobank participants; contribution of sugar intake vs other macronutrients. Int J Epidemiol 2016 dyw173. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyw173
Cross-sectional study to investigate ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk and mental health
One advantage of UK Biobank is the recruitment of participants from ethnic minority groups in sufficient numbers to enable meaningful comparisons of different ethnic groups. Ethnic groups are known to differ in their risk of a number of conditions including cardiovascular disease and mental health. For example Pakistani people have a high risk of heart disease and chinese people a high risk of high blood pressure and stroke. Understanding these differences and the reasons for them is of assistance in ensuring the appropriateness and effectiveness of screening, investigation and treatment interventions.
The aim of this study is to compare the different ethnic minority groups in terms of the amount and type of disease, the distribution by age, sex and socioeconomic deprivation and the lifestyle and environmental factors that are associated with the presence of disease.
In this study we will access only questionnaire and measurement data and compare ethnic sub-groups in terms of these data. At a later date, once available, we will be able to compare these sub-groups in terms of their biochemistry assays and follow-up events. Therefore, this initial study will focus on comparisons of risk and only later will we be able to make comparisons of actual disease occurrence.
|Lead investigator:||Professor Jill Pell|
|Lead institution:||University of Glasgow|
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|512||Adiposity among 132 479 UK Biobank participants; contribution of sugar intake vs other macronutrients||Anderson JJ et al.||2017||Int J Epidemiol|